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Lesson 4:
Coagulation and Flocculation

Objective
In this lesson we will answer the following questions:
  * How do coagulation and flocculation fit into the water treatment process?
  * Which chemical principles influence coagulation and flocculation?
  * Which chemicals are used in coagulation?
  * What factors influence coagulation and flocculation?

Reading Assignment
Along with the online lesson, read Chapter 4: Coagulation and Flocculation, in your textbook Operation of Water Treatment Plants Volume I .

Lecture
Overview of the Process
Location in the Treatment Plant
After the source water has been screened and has passed through the optional steps of pre-chlorination and aeration, it is ready for coagulation and flocculation. 

 
In theory and at the chemical level, coagulation and flocculation is a three step process, consisting of flash mixing, coagulation, and flocculation.  However, in practice in the treatment plant, there are only two steps in the coagulation/flocculation process - the water first flows into the flash mix chamber, and then enters the flocculation basin. 
In this lesson, we will primarily be concerned with the theory behind coagulation/flocculation.  In later lessons, we will consider the practice in more detail.
 
 
Purpose 
The primary purpose of the coagulation/flocculation process is the removal of turbidity from the water.  Turbidity is a cloudy appearance of water caused by small particles suspended therein.  Water with little or no turbidity will be clear.

 
Turbidity is not only an aesthetic problem in water.  Water with a high turbidity can be very difficult or impossible to properly disinfect.  As a result, the maximum allowable level of turbidity in water is 0.5 NTU, while the recommended level is about 0.1 NTU.  (NTU, or TU, stands for nephelometric turbidity units, a measurement of the turbidity of water.)
In addition to removing turbidity from the water, coagulation and flocculation is...

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"Waste Water". Anti Essays. 10 Dec. 2018

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APA Citation

Waste Water. Anti Essays. Retrieved December 10, 2018, from the World Wide Web: http://parimatchstavki7.com/free-essays/Waste-Water-507766.html