North America in 1750
1754 The First Clash
The Ohio Valley
Fort Necessity * George Washington
Fort Duquesne * Delaware & Shawnee Indians
1754 Albany Plan of Union
Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA
Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to
1755 Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer.
Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) A Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia.
Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces.
Only Br. Success expelled France from Louisiana.
1756 War Is Formally Declared!
Marquis de Montcalm
Native American tribes exploited both sides!
British-American Colonial Tensions
Methods of Fighting:
• Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or bayonet charge. tactics. • Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. • Drills & tough discipline. • Colonists should pay for their own defense. • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
• Col. militias served Military Organization: under own captains. Military Discipline: Finances: • No mil. deference or protocols observed. • Resistance to rising taxes. • Casual, non-professionals.
1757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister
He understood colonial concerns. He offered them a compromise:
- col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. - Lord Loudoun would be removed.
RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758.
1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England
* By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr.
1763 Treaty of Paris
France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost...