Explain the Cosmological argument
The cosmological argument is an argument that is concerned with finding an explanation for the universe, and conveys the idea that the universe is not self-explanatory and that there is initially a first cause behind its existence. The argument is based on contingency and states, a contingency is something that may or may not happen. Things come into existence because something has caused them to exist, however these things don’t necessarily have to exist; there is a chain of causes going back to the beginning of time when the universe was created.
In St. Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae he puts forward five ways for the existence of God, of which the first three are cosmological arguments. The five ways are arguments from motion, efficient causes, contingency and necessity, grades of perfection in thing and lastly from intelligent design. Aquinas found the first three of his arguments to be cosmological argument in an Aristotle view point.
The first way is based on motion. Nothing moves by itself therefore everything that moves is moved by something, in order for a thing to change, it requires actuality.
In Aquinas’ second way, he identified a series of causes and effects in the universe. Aquinas observed that nothing could be the cause of itself, meaning that it would have had to exist before it existed therefore everything that happens in the universe is the effect of an external cause.
The third way defines two types of objects in the universe: contingent beings and necessary beings. Things come into existence and later cease to exist, which helped Aquinas to consider that there was a possibility of infinite time. If this infinite time did indeed exist, then there must have been a time when nothing existed.
For Hume, he questions experience, we have no experience of the universe being made; therefore it is impossible for us to argue from causes within the universe to have caused the existence of the...