Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 & 2
In Reed’s (2001) reference book “diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from absolute or relative impairment in insulin secretion and/or insulin reaction”. There are two different types of DM, Type 1 is usually diagnosed before the age of thirty and the individual is dependent on insulin. This type of DM is also referred to as juvenile onset DM. Type 2 is usually diagnosed later in life but the number of individuals being diagnosed in at younger ages is rising at an alarming rate. (Mokdad et al., 2001).
Reed (2001) reports that in Type 1 (DM)
About 80 percent of cases have a genetically susceptible, immune-mediated, selective destruction of the insulin-secreting beta cells. However, environmental factors do affect the appearance of Type1 DM. Viruses such as congenital rubella, mumps, and coxsackie B may incite the development of autoimmune beta-cell destruction.
In Type 2 DM the onset is expected later in life usually after the age of 30 and it is associated with obesity, hypertension, hyperipidemia, and coronary artery disease (Reed, 2001).
If DM is not treated the outcomes are very poor and include the following:
* Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma
* Diabetic ketoacidosis
* Coronary artery disease
* Diabetic nephropathy
* Diabetic neuropathy
* Diabetic retinopathy
* Erection problems
* Infections of the skin, female urinary tract, and urinary tract
* Peripheral vascular disease
* Stroke (Eckman 2010)
According to Eckman (2010) With good blood glucose and blood pressure control, many of the complications of diabetes can be prevented. Studies have shown that strict control of blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure levels in persons with diabetes helps reduce the...