* General information about structuralism
1916 is a year of the beggining of structuralism. It’s realease date of “Course of General Linguistics” wroted by Ferdinand de Saussure’a. Burzyńska writes that poststructuralism is a mutation of structuralism and continued throughout the twentieth. In the field of literary theory has evolved under the influence of structural linguistics and anthropology. Structuralism had an impact on many areas. Among other things, on linguistics (the main school is Geneva, Prague, Copenhagen, U.S.) structural anthropology (ethnology), and literature. And its major schools and orientations were, inter alia, the Prague school of structural and linguistic poetics.
* Burzyńska’s two trends in literary theory.
Burzyńska distinguished two trends in literary theory.
The first was a linguistic poetics, which was inspired by structuralist linguistics and the main task was to determine the properties of language in relation to the general language.
The second trend was the grammar of literature. Influence on it was mostly Levi - Strauss. The beginning was his publication of "structural anthropology" from 1958.
* De Seaussure and early structuralism
The main subject of research de Saussure was a Sanskrit and Indo-European linguistics. It gave the most important tasks of linguistics. The research was an abstract system of language. It was a clean field of inquiry from the variability and ambiguity. Language is an autonomous, coherent and comprehensive system of mutual relations and connections of all the individual elements. Connoisseur of literature, wanted to create an independent knowledge of the literature. In the center of interest was the language, not mentioned: the system, not individual literary expression.
* The Prague school of structural
Russian formalist Yuri N. Tynianow introduced the concept of literary artistic work as a dynamic unity, in which all elements are related and...