Stimulus response in our everyday life: Use of classical conditioning
Stimulus is referred to the action or change that invokes a certain response. Usually this stimulus response theory is referred as classical conditioning. Classical conditioning theory was first discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Marketers often capitalize and use this tool to invoke their desired action from the consumer end. In our everyday life we are being conditioned by different product and under different situation we prefer certain product. Our consumption preference is now mostly biased and influenced with these conditioning because we have been trained to select and make a preference in a given situation.
To have a clear idea on classical conditioning we will discuss the Pavlov’s famous experiment which established the classical conditioning theory. Classical conditioning is made using two stimuli. in the experiment Pavlov used sound of a bell a as a neutral stimuli and dog food as unconditioned stimuli which causes the dog to salivate. Pavlov presented the dogs with a ringing bell followed by food. The food elicited salivation, and after repeated bell-food pairings the bell also caused the dogs to salivate. In this experiment, the unconditioned stimulus is the dog food as it produces an unconditioned response, saliva. The conditioned stimulus is the ringing bell and it produces a conditioned response of the dogs producing saliva. Thus we can see that such repetition and pairing influences significantly on behavior.
Later another experiment by Watson and Rayner showed that this classical conditioning theory is equally applicable for us human. In his experiment he used Little Albert a 9-month-old infant. He was tested on his reactions to various stimuli. He was shown a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey and various masks. Albert...