Explain what is meant by ‘gender socialization’ (2 marks)
Gender socialisation is the way in which males and females are taught to behave differently in a particular society
Suggest three external factors for improvement in girls’ educational achievements (6 marks)
• the impact of feminism
• Equal opportunities policies in education.
• Jobs with a predominant female workforce require degree level qualifications, such as nursing and teaching. This provides incentives for girls to continue in education
• Changes in the family: e.g. more divorce has given girls a greater incentive to gain useful qualifications, as they cannot now expect to be full-time housewives permanently provided for by their husbands.
• Changes in the labour market: e.g. greater numbers of women working and opportunities for promotion have given girls the incentive to achieve qualifications with which to pursue a career.
Outline some of the factors that may lead to educational underachievement in some ethnic groups (12 marks)
• Teachers segregate students by their ethnic group
• Labelling, self-fulfilling prophecy
• A high proportion of afro Caribbean boys are raised in a matrifocal family, they therefore lack a male role model. This makes them more vulnerable to peer pressure.
• parental encouragement/attitudes to education;
• cultural capital/parental knowledge of education;
• Language/speech codes: middle class use the same elaborated code as teachers, textbooks, and exam papers etc. So are better equipped for success than working class students who only have the restricted code.
• Cultural capital/parental knowledge of education: middle class parents, being better educated themselves, have better knowledge/skills with which to negotiate the system/choose more effectively.
• Present- vs future-time orientation: middle class are future-oriented, so more likely to see education as a meaningful part of a long-term career plan, whereas working class or present-oriented...