1. Population of Russia.
There are no official figures for the population of Russia in 2012, but the 2010 census, the results of which were released in late 2011 and early 2012, reports that the official population of Russia is 142,946,800.(1)
This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
2a. GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.414 trillion (2011 est.) This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services.(2)
2b. GDP (official exchange rate): $1.85 trillion (2011 est.) This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at official exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-�-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace.(3)
3a. GDP -...