Freud's Five Stages of Development
By Elizabeth Burns, eHow Contributor
The Viennese analyst Sigmund Freud revolutionized the concept of child development with his theory, developed in the early 20th century, that adult sexuality stems from childhood experience. He believed that human beings go through five stages of psychosexual development based on a particular erogenous zone and that children who don't successfully negotiate a particular stage can experience sexual or emotional problems in adulthood.
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· [->1]Freud's Psychoanalytic Theories of Stages of Development[->2]
The Oedipal Stage of Development[->3]
· Oral Stage
· Freud believed that psychosexual development begins with the oral phase, from birth to 18 months old, when the child learns to perceive his mother's breast as a source of comfort and nourishment. According to Freud, the infant can become orally fixated in adulthood if he feels deprived or experiences distress during this stage of development. Smoking, drinking too much alcohol and excessive eating have been linked to oral fixation in adults.
· The anal phase is marked by the beginning of toilet training when the child is aged between 18 months and 3 years old. She must learn to control his bowel movements, along with other aggressive desires. At this stage, the child derives pleasure from eliminating and retaining feces and begins to realize the power this gives her over her parents. Freud believed that anal fixation results from parents being too strict with children during toilet training. The anally fixated adult may be obsessively clean and orderly and enjoy exerting control over others. On the other hand, children whose parents are too lenient during this phase of development may be grow up to become messy and disorganized adults.
· The term "penis envy" derives from Freud's theories about the phallic stage of development. He believed that children become...