• 1866- Civil Rights Bill > full citizenship to African Americans (overturned Dred Scott) > vetoed by Johnson overturned by Republicans in congress
• Freedmans Bureau- Agency est. in 1865 to provide social, educational and economic advice and protection to former slaves
• Thirteenth Amendment- outlawed slavery
• Fourteenth Amendment- defined nation citizenship for former slaves
• Fifteenth Amendment- voting rights for all citizens
• Ku Klux Klan- violent terror group founded in 1866
o Led to Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871- made violent infringement of rights an act punishable by the national government
• After freedom many slaves felt the urge to leave the South countryside and move to larger cities to find work sharecropping was introduced
• African Americans developed their own culture> black churches, Freedman’s Bureau
• Civil Rights Act of 1875- no racial discrimination in public places (theatres, restaurants…)
• Slaughterhouse Cases 1873- major setback for black rights- changed the intent of the Fourteenth Amendment saying that rights exercised on a daily basis (speech, voting, fair trials, etc) were in control of the STATE not the federal govt. - civil rights act of 1875 declared unconstitutional because of this (cannot outlaw discrimination of private individuals)
• The reconstruction era proved for only a temporary success for African Americans in the South… they would not see a full extension of their rights until the mid-1900s. Provided the beginning of African American culture.
American treatment of Indians
• Viewed the native americans as brutish and uncivilized > westward expansion brought Americans into contact with these natives.
• Defeating of indian tribes (Great Sioux War, Nex Perces)
• Indians were forced to be “Americanized” > treatment of these people was similar to other colonial settlements by imperialist nations
• Children made to dress, look and act like white...