Issues of Bias in the Diagnosis Systems – 25 marks. Beth Phillips
Classification of Mental Disorders uses the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). These are the 2 main classification systems is based on the biological or medical model of abnormality. Clinical psychologists aim to classify disorders so a label can be applied and treatment proposed. Behaviourist and cognitive models place less importance on identifying syndromes and more focus on identifying symptoms that need to be removed. Behaviourist and cognitive models don’t need classification systems or if they use them they are more appropriate to the model. These classification systems permit the therapist to isolate the variables that become the focus of the treatment. There is some evidence that suggests that this system has higher reliability and validity than DSM.
Culture is shared norms and values and ways of interacting that bind together members of society or some other collection of people together. Across cultures, the classification systems differ, e.g. in west, it is abnormal to hear voices but in some religions hearing voices can be desirable. A lot of diagnosing is to do with social norms, however these can easily change over time or space. The DSM and similar books are often made in western society so they can’t be used correctly in eastern societies making them culturally biased. Part of the psychological diagnosis test is a personality or intelligence test. These tests are created in and based on western society. They are based on the things that western norms are. These tests are then standardised by people of western cultures. Non- western societies aren’t diagnosed as accurately.
Certain cultures and subcultures are treated differently. COCHRANE AND SAHIDHARRAN found that black afro- Caribbean immigrants in the UK are up to 7 times more likely to be diagnosed...