1. *Define classical conditioning and behaviorism, and describe the basic components of classical conditioning.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Behaviorism is the view that psychology (1) Should be an objective science that (2) Studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2.
Unconditioned response- classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
Unconditioned stimulus-in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response.
Conditioned response-in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus-in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, come to trigger a conditioned response.
2. Summarize the processes of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
Extinction is the diminished responding that occurs when the CS (conditioned stimulus) no longer signals an impending US(unconditioned stimulus) .
Spontaneous recovery-the reappearance of a weakened CR after a pause-suggested to Pavlov that extinction was suppressing the CR rather than eliminating it.
Generalization the tendency, one a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
Discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
3. *Describe the two major characteristics that distinguish classical conditioning from operant conditioning.
In classical conditioning, the organism forms associations between...