* Learning has taken place for Betty and her parents. How has learning taken place for the child as well as her parents? Explain in operant learning terms.
Learning has taken place for both Betty and her parents. For Betty she has learned that crying will draw her parent’s focus which will cause them to provide the attention she wants and be able to leave her bed and sleep on the couch with them. This is positive reinforcement for her as it seems she is being rewarded for crying. For her parents they have learned that by allowing her to leave her room and fall asleep on the couch they can put a stop to her crying. This is considered a negative reinforcement as it removes something considered unpleasant (i.e her crying)
* If Betty's parents asked you for advice on how to ensure that Betty is able to sleep alone in her room, what would you tell them? Why?
If the parents requested my advice I would guide them to more appropriate positive reinforcements, such as providing Betty with a reward for staying in her bed overnight and not crying. I would also advise them not to remove her from her room when she begins to cry. This would stand to remove the reinforcement she has become accustomed to and replace it with a more appropriate one.
Alferd Binet and Theodore Simon began using intelligence test to identify children with learning disabilities in the early 1900’s in France. The Binet-Simon Intelligence Test was brought to the United States by Lewis Terman and revised to Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale. These test are now used for everything from colleges to determine if applicants would be a good fit to the military to determine where best a soldier should serve. While the psychometric principles may show intelligences, it does not account for personal differences. With cognitive psychology the individual is able to put to use their current knowledge, previous experience and cultural differences.
Benson, E. (2003, February). Intelligent...