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Phobias Essay

  • Submitted by: cassie1987
  • on June 24, 2014
  • Category: Psychology
  • Length: 810 words

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Below is an essay on "Phobias" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Phobias and Addictions
University of Phoenix
Cassondra Capers
June 11, 2014
Arnell Hall

Phobias and Addictions
          Conditioning is a type of learning. Through classical conditioning, an environmental stimulus initiates a response, differing from operant conditioning because a behavior (or operant) produces an environmental response (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Classical conditioning is learning that involves an environmental stimulus that produces a response in an organism (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Therefore, a neutral stimulus that does not elicit a response is paired with a stimulus that does elicit a response and the pairing allows the neutral stimulus to elicit a response (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Operant conditioning is learning that occurs when an organism associates a response that occurs spontaneously with a particular environmental effect (Kowalski & Westen, 2011).
        A phobia, in terms of psychology is a common anxiety disorder. Phobias are typically irrational fears of an object, situation or activity, where the suffer takes measures of avoidance, not to face one’s fear. Yates (2012), “specific phobia is characterized by extreme and persistent fear of specific objects or situations that present little or no real threat” (p. 1). Often measures of avoidance in relation to phobias are disproportional to any danger, which refer to the “irrational” measures of avoidance. All types of phobias may interfere with normal daily functioning, and overwhelming anxiety may develop. Phobias are can develop through classical conditioning. This occurs when a two stimuli are paired, which changes the reflex response of the first stimulus. Therefore, if one has an irrational fear of dogs (cynophobia), whereas dogs will attack and kill them, this can lead one to associate dogs with fear and anxiety. The sight of a dog in person, on television, or in a picture can lead to fear and anxiety.
      Addictions are dependencies on substances or...

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