Module 3: Urological System
• Acute cystitis
• Acute glomerulonephritis
• Loop diuretics
• Prostate enlargement
• Thiazide diuretics
• Urinary incontinence
• Urinary tract infection
Urinary tract obstruction
• Obstruction can occur anywhere in the urinary tract and it may be anatomic or functional, including renal stones (calculi), an enlarged prostate gland or urethral strictures.
• The most serious complications are hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and infection caused by the accumulation of urine behind the obstruction.
• Persistent obstruction of the bladder outlet leads to residual urine volumes, low bladder wall compliance and risk for vesicoureteral reflux and infection.
• The aetiology of renal stones (calculi) includes supersaturation of the urine with precipitation of stone-forming substances like salt crystals and proteins, changes in urine pH or urinary tract infection.
• The pathophysiology of renal calculi formation involves the crystallization of small crystals into large stones in the presence of super saturated urine. Typically the person has insufficient oral fluid intake over time. Altered urine pH can also influence formation of stones. If the kidney stone creates a blockage anywhere along the urinary tract this can create additional pathophysiology.
• Blockage may occur in the ureter and cause reduced flow or backflow of urine into the kidney. This can result in pain, kidney infections and other problems.
• Blockage may occur in the bladder urethral opening and reduce or stop the flow of urine via the urethra. This can result in pain, urine accumulation and bladder infections (cystitis).
• The aetiology of prostate enlargement includes prostatitis (inflammation or infection of the prostate), benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate neoplasia (cancer).