Hatshepsut’s Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy = Military campaigns and her expedition to Punt.
There are many contrasting opinions on whether or not Hatshepsut was military or not.
People have called her reign subtle and peaceful, (opinions such as these expressed by Winlock veer close to being sexist), or people have stated that she was constantly warring with the Nubians, Hittites and Mitanni. In the character of a consilidatory
There have been many ancient eyewitness sources that provided evidence for Hatshepsut being maintaining the image of a ‘warrior pharaoh’.
Some newer sources from the early to mid 20th century have argued against these claims.
People who provide evidence for Hatshepsut being a ‘warrior pharaoh’ =
* Naville – “Hatshepsut has been shown as a sphinx, trampling Egypt’s enemies underfoot”.
* The Ancient Egyptian Nobleman, Ti (EYEWITNESS)– “I saw him destroying the land of Nubia…I saw him overthrowing the [Nubian] nomads, their chiefs being brought to him as prisoners”.
AS ACKNOWLEDGED BY REDFORD, TI’S ACCOUNT IS “THE FIRST AND MAJOR PIECE OF EVIDENCE”.
* Hatshepsut herself inscribes on the Third Pylon at Karnak that she is the one, “who commands what happens…The Asiatic being in fear and the land of Nubia in submission”.
* A relief in the Berlin Museum shows running soldiers armed with heavy artillery – indicating warrior pharaoh image. Nubians are shown with Egyptians. Details can be lost in the medium of reliefs, so either the Nubians alongside the Egyptians indicates them being taken off as slaves, or them as part of the Egyptian army, supporting the theory of acculturation proposed by Vivian Davies.
People who provide evidence against Hatshepsut being a warrior pharaoh =
* Winlock, who has the strongest opinion –...