June 16, 2104
Metaphysics is defined as a branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things, including abstract concepts such as being, knowing, substance, cause, identity, time, and space (Kim & Sosa 1999). It is a form of philosophy that studies the ultimate structure and constitution of reality. In philosophy metaphysics has been understood in various ways as an inquiry into what basic categories of things there are as it pertains to the mental and physical study of reality, as opposed to appearance (Loux, 2006). It encompasses the study of the world as a whole as it solidifies itself as a theory of first principles.
Some basic problems in the history of metaphysics are the problems that are considered universal (Loux, 2006). The nature of the problem with closely corresponds to the relation to other understood elements or particulars. Strong opposition to metaphysics comes in the questions of the brief in God, the mind body problem and the nature of material or external objects (Loux, 2006). The major types of metaphysical theory include Platonism, Aristotelism , Thomism, and Cartesianism. Platonism is the view that there exist such things as abstract objects and the object that does not exist in space or time and which is therefore entirely non-physical and non-mental (Kim & Sosa 1999). In metaphysics its job is to provide intellectual expression and transfer them from the level of sentiment to that of theory. It is important to notice that Platonism is not just the intellectualizing of mood, yet an attempt to solve specific problems in a specific way (Kim & Sosa 1999). Aristotelism makes room for a type of knowledge which does not divide by analysis the subject from the object and the objects into its constitutive separated parts are different from the reason-that-separates. Thomasism says that the fundamental axioms of ontology are the principle of non-contradiction and the...