In 1970, the first emergence of Lyme disease was discovered in Lyme, Connecticut. More than a decade later, Dr. Willy Burgdoferi identified the causation of the disease. He discovered that causative agent was Borrelia burgdoferi sensu stricto. Lyme disease is the most common insect-borne infection in the United States; particularly in northeastern areas such as Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania. These state reported over one-thousand cases of Lyme disease per year between 2001 and 2004. (534) Lyme disease also occurs in Europe, China, Japan, Australia, and the former Soviet Union (Merck 1478). The causative agent for Lyme disease in Europe and in other places is Bareelia afzelii and Barrelia agrinii.
The bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi that causes Lyme disease is transmitted to people when the bite of an infected tick, known as a deer tick -Ixodes scapularis, introduces the bacteria into the skin. This bacterium is large microaerophilic spirochete. Its genome has multiple chromosome copies which allow it to infect various species such as mice, lizards and most commonly ticks. Borrelia burgdorferi is a double-membrane envelope The saliva of the tick suppresses the immune system of the patient, allowing the spirochete to quickly multiply. Brief periods of attachment rarely transmit disease. At first, the bacterium enters the bloodstream and begins to spread radially. The cell wall of the spirochete causes an inflammatory reaction in humans which causes the rash on the skin. Incubation period is relatively one week. After 3 to 32 days, the bacterium begins to migrate from the site of the bite into the surrounding skin. The rash tends to clear centrally giving the disease its peculiar physical characteristics.
Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of Lyme disease in eastern North America
Lyme disease is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia. Spirochetes are surrounded by peptidoglycan and flagella and are composed of...