Literature Review: Effect of Therapeutic Hypothermia
Irreversible brain damage and death can occur after cardiac arrest, even with a successful resuscitation. Mild hypothermia immediately after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) increased the chances for both survival and good brain functions (Presciutti, Bader, Hepburn, 2012). Successful use of moderate hypothermia (28°C to 32°C) before cardiac arrest has been in effect since the 1950s to protect the brain from ischemia secondary to certain open-heart surgeries. In the normal brain, hypothermia decreases the metabolic oxygen demand of the brain by 6% for each 1°C reduction in brain temperature >28°C (Nolan, Morley, Hoek, Hickey, Kloeck, Billi,... & Atkins, 2003).
This paper is a literature review on the current evidence available on therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after cardiac arrest. The literature review helps to analyze the available evidence and will provide recommendations for future clinical practice. Studies have shown only 15% survival from in-hospital cardiac arrest and which even worse on the out- of- hospital cardiac arrests (7%). An increased chances of neurological damage seen in patients who survived with the initial Cardio pulmonary resuscitation. One of the main cause for this is the severe anoxic brain injury resulted from the arrest (Collins & Samworth, 2008). According to Collins & Samworth” The Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre found that of 22 105 post cardiac arrest patients admitted to intensive care units between 1995 and 2004, 45% survived to leave intensive care and 30% survived to hospital discharge” (2008).
TH has been under research since 1950s, but the first trial report of the use of it was published in 2001. This was a study of 30 patients who survived cardiac arrest outside the hospital due to asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA).During this study hypothermia was induced by using a helmet device. There were no neurologic or clinical outcomes...