1. What is the best description of CKD? A) Symptoms are reversible with life long medication. INCORRECT Chronic kidney disease is progressive, irreversible kidney injury. Acute renal failure may be reversible with adequate supportive care during the acute episode. B) Condition has a rapid onset with frequent remissions. INCORRECT Acute renal failure has a rapid onset, but chronic kidney disease has a gradual onset, occurring over months or years. Neither form of renal failure has frequent periods of remission. C) It is a fatal disorder unless renal replacement therapy is received. CORRECT CKD is fatal unless some form of renal replacement therapy (dialysis or organ transplant) is done, whereas acute renal failure has a good prognosis for the return of kidney function if appropriate supportive care is provided during the acute period. D) There are frequent exacerbations since half of all nephrons are damaged. INCORRECT Half of all nephrons are often damaged in acute renal failure. In CKD, about 90% of nephrons are typically involved.
CKD is a disorder with a complex etiology involving many interrelated factors. Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for renal failure.
2. What additional information in Louellen's history may be related to the onset of ESRD?
A) Female gender. INCORRECT CKD does not seem to be more common in either gender. B) Hypertension. CORRECT Hypertension is one of the primary causes of CKD. The vast majority of clients with CKD have hypertension, which may be either the cause or the result of CKD. C) Use of diuretics. INCORRECT Use of diuretics is not a cause of CKD, but obtaining a medication history is important since many medications are nephrotoxic. D) Hysterectomy at age 35. INCORRECT This is not a risk factor for CKD.
The following diagnostic tests were performed: Hemoglobin. Serum creatinine and BUN. Serum calcium. Arterial blood gases. Serum potassium. Serum phosphorus....