Intonation Ch. 15 Segmental vs. suprasegmental phonology (e.g. stress, intonation) Pitch (auditory sensation) vs. fundamental frequency Pitch differences are linguistically significant when 1) they are under the speaker’s control, 2) they are perceptible. Utterance: a continuous piece of speech beginning and ending with a clear pause. Minimal utterance: one syllable. Tone: the overall behaviour of the pitch: level vs. moving (e.g. falling, rising) _yes ˎyes ˏyes _no ˎno ˏno
We ignore differences between high and low level tones. Is English a tone language? Simple tones vs. complex tones yes yes no no (fall-rise) (rise-fall)
In ordinary speech, the intonation tends to take place within the lower part of the speaker’s pitch range (extra pitch height is symbolised by ↑, e.g. ↑ˎyes). Form vs. function of English tones (It is not always possible to state what the function of a tone is.) Fall: “neutral”, finality
Rise: invitation to continue (e.g. in instructions or directions) (1) A: B: A: B: A: You start off on the ring road… ˏyes turn left at the first roundabout… ˏyes and ours is the third house on the left. 1
(2) A: Have you seen Ann? B: ˏno (vs. ˎno) (3) A: Do you know what the longest balloon flight was? B: ˏno (vs. ˎno)
Fall-rise: limited agreement (4) A: I’ve heard that it’s a good school. B: yes (5) A: It’s not really an expensive book, is it? B: no
Rise-fall: strong feeling (6) A: You wouldn’t do an awful thing like that, would you? B: no (7) A: Isn’t the view lovely! B: yes
Level: routine, uninteresting (e.g. roll-call, routine questions)
Ch. 16 is it ˏyou three-syllable utterance consisting of one tone-unit; the only syllable that carries a tone (i.e. the tonic syllable or nucleus) is the third one.
John is it ˏyou
four-syllable utterance consisting of two tone-units;
Simple tone-unit: Head: the part of a tone-unit that extends from the first stressed syllable (the onset of the head) up to the tonic syllable....