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Industrial Study: Sulphuric Acid Essay

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Below is an essay on "Industrial Study: Sulphuric Acid" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Production of Sulfuric Acid [pic]
Uses of Sulfuric Acid
• 170 million tonnes produced worldwide yearly; more than any other chemical
• Used mainly (75%) to produce fertilisers (source of soluble sulfates) [pic][pic][pic]
• To produce superphosphate: [pic]
• Other uses include chemical synthesis (nitric acid), metal extraction, petrochemical industry, drying non-reactive gases, manufacture of pharmaceuticals and detergents, electrolyte in lead-acid batteries

Strong Acid
• Sulfuric acid is a strong diprotic acid: [pic] (virtually complete)
                                  [pic] [pic][pic] (much lower [pic])
• Reacts with bases e.g. metal oxides: [pic]

Strong Oxidant
• In dilute [pic], H+ is oxidant, H2 gas produced: [pic][pic][pic]
• In conc. [pic], [pic]is the oxidant – much more powerful (S atom undergoes reduction)
      → [pic][pic][pic] (or with 2e- to give SO2 or 8e- to give H2S)
      → [pic][pic][pic] (often with a metal e.g. Zn, Cu, Mg)
• Sulfuric acid can be reduced to SO2, S or H2S depending on temp, strength of reductant and mole ratio

Dehydrating Agent - has a high affinity for water
• e.g. copper sulfate: [pic]
• e.g. sucrose: [pic] (or in [pic])
• Used to dry gas mixtures before analysis (bubble through [pic])
    → but not bases (e.g. [pic]) or reductants (e.g. [pic]) because they react

The Contact Process   [pic]
• Sulfur dioxide obtained as byproduct of natural gas, crude oil, smelting of sulfide ores of copper, zinc, lead
• OR burning sulfur: [pic]   (mined from underground by Frasch process)
• The sulfur used in burning is a liquid in mist (increases surface area)
• Catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide: [pic][pic][pic] (small K, relatively slow)
• Vanadium (V) oxide (V2O5) in converter is used as catalyst at 1 atm and 400-500°C, excess O2 (g) (rate/yield)
• Double Absorption of sulfur trioxide to form oleum: [pic][pic][pic]   (H2SO4 (l) added)
• Dilution of oleum in water tank to sulfuric...

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"Industrial Study: Sulphuric Acid". Anti Essays. 13 Dec. 2018

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Industrial Study: Sulphuric Acid. Anti Essays. Retrieved December 13, 2018, from the World Wide Web: http://parimatchstavki7.com/free-essays/Industrial-Study-Sulphuric-Acid-508013.html