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Hyperaldosteronism Essay

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Below is an essay on "Hyperaldosteronism" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

HYPERALDOSTERONISM

      Hyperaldosteronism is characterized by chronic excess aldosterone secretion by the adrenal glands, causing sodium retention and potassium excretion. This results in hypernatremia and hypokalemia. Hyperaldosteronism affects usually women with peak incidence in the thirties or fourties.

      There are two types of hyperaldosteronism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperaldosteronism (Sometimes referred to as Conn’s syndrome) results from an autonomous overproduction of aldosterone, which is not due to the effects of the renin-angiotensin system but in a direct abnormality of the adrenal gland. This causes hypernatremia, hypokalemia and hypertension. The combination of the following manifestations is known as the Conn’s complex. However in secondary hyperaldosteronism, renin levels are increased which activates the cascade of hormones that results in an overproduction of aldosterone, rarely causing hypertension. Thus primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism can be differentiated between their renin levels and resultant hypertension. Recent authors use terms: hyporeninemic and hyperreninemic in describing primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism.


ETIOLOGY
    • Primary hyperaldosteronism
        o Aldosterone producing adenomas (APA) 60-70%
        o Bilateral idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia (IAH)- 25-40%
        o Aldosterone-producing renin-responsive adenomas (AP-RA)
        o Primary adrenal hyperplasia (PAH)
        o Familial hyperaldosteronism type 1 & type 2
        o Adrenal carcinoma
        o Ectopic aldosterone producing tumors
        o Chretien’s syndrome
    • Secondary hyperaldosteronism
        o Congestive heart failure
        o Decreased renal perfusion
        o Pregnancy

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
• Hypernatremia
      o ECF volume expansion (Hypervolemia)
      o Chronic hypertension
            ▪ Headache
            ▪ Failing vision
            ▪ Irritability
            ▪...

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Hyperaldosteronism. Anti Essays. Retrieved December 17, 2018, from the World Wide Web: http://parimatchstavki7.com/free-essays/Hyperaldosteronism-634706.html