The Great Moravian Empire and the Přemyslid Dynasty
• Around 830, the Great Moravian Empire was established along the Morava River by the Slavic leader Mojmír.
• Mojmír's successors expanded the empire to include today's Czech Republic, Slovakia, southern Poland and western Hungary.
• The empire found itself at the crossroads between the Germanic people in the west and the Byzantium in the east.
• Mojmír's successor Rostislav feared the German influence and asked the Byzantine emperor to send two missionaries to come and spread Eastern Christianity in the Great Moravian Empire.
• The two missionaries Cyril and Methodius of Constantinople created the Slavonic script and translated religious texts from Greek and Latin into the Old Slavonic language.
• After Methodius' death in 885, the Roman Catholic religion was adopted and the Cyrillic script was replaced by the Latin alphabet.
• The Great Moravian Empire collapsed with the Hungarian invasion in 907.
• The rule over the region was now in the hands of the Premyslid dynasty that dominated the Czech lands from the 9th century until 1306.
• The Czech lands had a high economic, cultural, and political status during the Premyslid rule, which was further strengthened by Vratislav II being granted the royal crown and becoming the first Czech king in 1085 - so far remaining subordinate to the Holy Roman Empire and the German king, with the royal title being made hereditary in 1212 by the Golden Sicilian Bull.
• In the meantime, Prague was growing rapidly thanks to its position at the crossroads of several trade routes.
• During the reign of Premysl Otakar II in mid-13th century, the Czech kingdom briefly expanded all the way to the Mediterranean Sea. The Premyslid dynasty ended with the death of its last member, Wenceslas III, in 1306.
John of Luxembourg and Charles IV
• The Czech throne was taken by John of Luxembourg who ruled the country from 1310 to 1346.
• During his reign,...