Historical Development of Nursing Science
All professions and careers are guided with a set of functions, duties, and responsibilities. Many of these professions such as nursing uses science as a guide for the betterment of society which keeps people healthy and alive. “Nursing Science is a domain of knowledge concerned with the adaptation of individuals and groups to actual or potential health problems, the environments that influence health in humans, and the therapeutic interventions that promote health and affect the consequences of illness” (Kim, 1994, p. 145). However, through historical events and innovative scientific discoveries that took place in America's history, differing views of nursing science has evolved and changed over the centuries. Nursing is an evolving profession that uses science as its guide. The purpose of this paper is to present the historical development of nursing science over the years using theories, theorists, and events in the history of nursing. The relationship between nursing science and the profession will be discussed. Other disciplines have had influence over nursing.
Florence Nightingale is one of the most influential nurses that revolutionized the meaning of nursing as a profession and as a science. In 1859, she wrote a book called “Notes on Nursing: What It IS and What It Is Not.” The main idea of her theory was based on manipulation of the environment to promote health and healing. During the time of the Crimean War in Europe, Florence Nightingale discovered that wounded British soldiers were hospitalized in unsanitary hospital camps. She took a group of untrained women to help clean and organize the hospital camps to prevent further infection and germs to spread. Her theory helped many wounded soldiers get proper care.
In the 1960s, Virginia Henderson developed two published works called the Basic Principles of Nursing care and the Nature of Nursing. She established that nursing helps people be...