1. Bibliographical Information: Morrow, E.H., Leijon, A., Meerupati, A, Hemiclonal analysis reveals significant genetic, environmental and genotype x environment effects on sperm size in Drosophila melanogaster; 2008; doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01585; http://wf2dnvr17.webfeat.org/bd0LN1943/url=http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=2&hid=3&sid=4976ede0-ab47-4db4-97aa-65aed0a33b53%40sessionmgr10.
2. Introduction: Hemiclonal analysis - a modern measuring genetic method that is used to provide direct estimates of additive genetic variation by measuring the total phenotypic (visible characteristics of an organism) variation in multiple groups of individuals that all share a haploid (single set of unpaired chromosomes) genome in common.
Genetic - resulting or relating to genes, hereditary.
Environmental - relating to a person's or animal's surroundings
Genotype - genetic makeup of an organism
Sperm - semen
Drosophila melanogaster - small two-winged fruit fly used in genetic research.
This subject is important because it researches whether environment and/or genetics play a role in the size of sperm and whether the size of sperm affects the success in sperm competition. It will show if some genotypes are better adapted to one environment than to another.
3. Content: This article discusses that sperm size varies from one group of organisms to the next. Often, males from the same group will have different sperm size. The reason for this difference is relatively unknown. The article also discusses whether the larger sperm have achieved greater success in sperm competition. In some species the larger sperm have greater success (nematode worms) but in other species such as dung flies, crickets, beetles, and salmon the larger sperm are not any more successful than the smaller sperm. In Drosophila melanogaster, sperm competition is affected by the sperm length because the longer sperm were able to position themselves more...