Indus Valley Civilization Or The Harappan Civilization History Essay
The Indus Valley civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization after the village named Harappa, in what is now Pakistan, where the civilization was first discovered. It is also known as the Indus Civilization because two of its best-known cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, are situated along the banks of the Indus River. This name is inaccurate. Most of the civilization's settlements were situated along the equally massive Ghaggar-Hakra river system, which is now largely extinct. The Indus Valley civilization extended over a large region of present-day Pakistan and western India. It flourished between 2600 and 1900 BC.
Forgotten to history prior to its rediscovery in the 1920s, the Indus civilization -- as it is more commonly (if inaccurately) called -- ranks with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, as one of the three earliest of all human civilizations, as defined by the emergence of cities and writing.
The Indus civilization was not the earliest human civilization; Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt developed cities slightly before the Indus civilization did. Nevertheless, the Indus civilization was by far the most geographically extensive of the three earliest civilizations. Over 1000 settlements have been found, the majority along the path of the extinct Ghaggar-Hakra river, which once flowed -- like the Indus -- through what is now known as the Indus Valley. (It is due to the Ghaggar-Hakra's prominence that some scholars, with justification, prefer to speak of the Indus Valley civilization rather than the Indus civilization; for the sake of brevity, this article will use the older nomenclature.)
Other Indus civilization settlements were situated along the Indus and its tributaries or spread as widely as Mumbai (Bombay) to the south, Delhi to the east, the Iranian border to the west and the Himalayas to the north. Among the settlements are numerous cities, including...