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Gen Chem 1 Summary

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Chemisty
Bond order=bonding-antibonding/2 bonding has greater electron density, antibonding has higher energy
1 atm=760 mmHg(torr)=101325 Pa=29.92 inHg=14.7 psi
PV=nRT, R=.08206, T(k)=C°+273, 22.4L
P1V1=P2V2(B), V1/T1=V2/T2 (C), V1/n1=V2/n2 (A)
Mole fraction (Xa)=na/ntotal,   Pa=XaPtotal
KE=1/2mv2, KEavg=(3/2)RT=½*AV#*mass* u2, R=8.314 J/mol*K
Ideal: small spaces with small volume U no sig. forces. [P+a(n/v)2]*[V-nb]=RT
Urms=√3(8.314)T/molarmass (kg), rate=1/√M, RateA/RateB=√MofB/MofA
Density=molarmass/molarvolume=P(molarmass)/RT, Molarmass=mass/moles
Real: V=Nrt/P+nb, P=nRT/v-a(n/v)2, [P+a(n/v)2]*[V-nb]=Nrt, P=Nrt/V-nb-n2a/v2
f(s-1)=C(m/s)/ƛ(s)
radio, microwave, infrared, ultraviolet, xray,gamma ray →F↑W↓
Elight packet=BF, photonE =BC/ƛ, #photons=E Pulse(J)/E Photon(J)
KE=BFPhoton –BindingEelectron, bindingE(kj/mol)=AV#*F*B/1000
De Broglie ƛ= B/mv (massvelocity)
-2.18E-18 J(1/E1squared-1/E2squared), high to low=emitted, low to high=absorbed
PotentialE: E=1/4∏8.85E-12(c2/Jm)(charge1charge2/distance)
↓E+↑d (like charge) ↓E-↓d (like charge)
Ionic compounds exothermic (-)
LatticeE: ↓exo↑radii, ↑exo↑mag of ion charge. Smaller magnitude, lower charge
Ionic solids: high melting pt. no conductivity. Solutions of ionic compounds conduct
Less electronegative atom is central
Negative formal charge on most electronegative
Radical=odd number of electrons
Rxns: exothermic(weak bonds break, strong form), endothermic (strong break, weak form)
Principle quantum #(n): size and energy, En=-2.18E-18 J(1/n2). Angular momentum(l): shape
Magnetic(ml):orientation. Sublevel=n, orbitals in sublevel=2L+L. orbitals in level=n2
BondE(kj/mol): E needed to break 1mol of bond in gas phase(+). Breaking: endothermic+, forming: exothermic-
%ionchar=charge/1.6E-19 C =(1-ₑ-(¼)(Electronegdifference))100=(measureddipole/completedipole)* 100. 50%+=ionic
Dipole(cm)=charge(c)*distance(m) [ʋ=qr] q=1.6E-19C. r=130 pm, ʋ=6.2D
1A=10-10m
↑thermalE rel to intermolecularF→gas,...

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