Foundations of Psychology
A paradigm is a system of theoretical hypothesis utilized by a scientific community to make sense of an area of experience. Psychology lacks a blended paradigm, but has several schools of thought, or perspectives, which is a way of perceiving psychological events. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), was the founder of the first psychology lab in Germany. He also promoted the first school of thought, structuralism. The first paradigm in psychology is structuralism, which breaks down the minds mental process into basic elements. Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener (1867-1927) used introspection, the examination of one’s own conscious thoughts and feelings. Wundt trained observers to verbally report everything that went through their minds when they were presented with a stimulus or task. William James (1842-1910), was one of the founders of the second paradigm, functionalism, and known worldwide for penning the first textbook in psychology in 1890. With functionalism, the main goal in this approach is the function of mental processes. Psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), is a school of thought that focused attention on the influence on behavior of the unconscious mind. Freud believed the human mind was made up of three elements, the id, which is made up of primal urges, the ego, part of the personality that deals with reality, and the super ego, which is a section of the personality that keeps all of our ideals and values. Behaviorism, known today as behavior psychology, is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are learned through conditioning....