Life Span Perspective of Human Development
Life span development has several characteristics. It is multidirectional in its embrace and acceptance of change as it evolves naturally in many directions, rather than from a mechanistic and linear perspective (Berger, 2010). It encompasses gains and losses, natural predictable growth and unexpected transformations (Berger, 2010). The lifespan perspective is information combined with many fields other than psychology such as sociology, anthropology, neuroscience, and medical research, is considered multidisciplinary. According to Berger (2010), “Change is ongoing, although neither random nor easy”.
Erik Erikson theory of psychosocial development identified the similarities between the child mindset and the social influences it has (Berger, 2010). Erikson’s’ psychoanalytic theory identifies how the response of parents, society, history, and cultural patterns affect the development of the child. He stressed the importance in cultural diversity and social change. He believed psychological crisis stimulates growth and development, especially during the eight stages of psychosocial development that involves the resolution of a crisis as a precursor to entering the next stage of development (Berger, 2010).
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis theory, just like Erikson’s’ theory, look inward at internal conflicts and the managing of crisis and internal drives. Freud’s perspective maintains human behavior begins with unconscious conflicts and drives. He developed the three stages in child development that include oral, anal and phallic, and concluded that parental reaction to the child’s erotic drives create deep and lasting influence on the personality and lifelong development (Berger, 2010).
In Freud’s theory, the three stages are characterized by parts of the body taking on erotic nature (Berger, 2010). The first stage during infancy is the oral stage that centers on the mouth. In the early childhood years, the anus...