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Below is an essay on "Domains" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

1. The 3 domain system of nomenclature vs 5 kingdom system of Whittaker; differences; ancestors of other groups? (529-30)
  * 5 kingdom: monera, protista, plantae, fungi, animalia
      * Places all prokaryotes in single Kingdom and separates 3 principal branches of multicellular eukaryotes as separate kingdoms
      * Protistamisc
  * 3 domain: bacteria, archaea, eukarya
      * Uses category Domain as a Superkingdom to emphasize ancient lineages  

  2. Nutritional and metabolic adaptations that have evolved in the prokaryotes/example (537-40)
  * Nutritional
      * Photoautotrophs: photosynthetic organisms that capture light energy and use it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide. Ex: cyanobacteria, plants, algae
      * Chemoautotrophs: need only carbon dioxide as carbon source. Oxidize inorganic substances (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, gerrous ions). Unique to certain prokaryotes.
      * Photoheterotrophs: use light energy but must obtain carbon in organic form. Ex: marine prokaryotes
      * Chemoheterotrophs: consume organic molecules for energy and C. ex: prokaryotes, protists, fungi, animals, some parasitic plants
  * Metabolic
      * Obligate aerobes: use O2 for cellular respiration and cant grow without it
      * Facultative anaerobes: use O2 if present, but can grow by fermentation in anaerobic environment
      * Obligate anaerobes: poisoned by O2. Can live by fermentation, use anaerobic respiration
      * Metabolic cooperationsymbiotic relationship; heterocytes
      * Nitrogen fixation: nitrogen to ammoniaamino acids

  3. Conjugation and reproduction in a ciliate, like Paramecium (556-58)
  * 2 cells of compatible mating strains align side by side and partially fuse
  * Meiosis of micronuclei produces 4 haploid micronuclei in each cell
  * 3 micronuclei in each cell disintegrate. Remaining micronucleus in each cell divides by mitosis
  * Cells swap one micronucleus
  * Cells...

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