Examining class difference in achievement – external factors
A. The term ‘elaborated speech code’ is meant by wider vocabulary and is based on longer, grammatically more complex.
B. Three policies that governments have introduced to compensate for material and cultural disadvantage, apart from educational priority areas are operation head start in the United States which helps to provide poor children with education and help with learning skills. Sure start which tackle poverty and social exclusion. Finance supports and the cost of education such as free school meals which then help people with costs.
C. Material deprivation is meant by poverty and lack of material necessities such as adequate housing, income and diet and health. Poor housing can affect pupil’s achievement both directly and indirectly. For example, over crowding can have a direct effect by making it harder for the child to study, this could be due to small children being a distraction meaning the child may not get adequate sleep from sharing rooms due to over crowding the child may not have space to do homework. Poor housing can also have an indirect effect. For example, children in crowded homes run greater risk of accidents and illness. Diet and health can effect a Childs achievement. For example, Howard notes that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and nutrients. Poor nutrition affects health. For example, weakening the immune system and lowering children’s energy levels. This may result in absences from school due to illness. Lack of finance support means that children from poorer families have to do without equipment and miss out on experiences that would enhance their educational achievement. For example, Tanner et al found that the cost of items such as transport, uniforms, books and computers etc, places heavy burdens on poor families. Both material and cultural deprivation play a part in achievement, the fact some children from...