* In a chemical reaction, one type of energy is converted into another, however, the total amount of energy remains unchanged.
* The chemical energy of a substance is the sum of its potential energy and kinetic energy, also known as its heat content and enthalpy (H). During a chemical reaction, the atoms of the reactants are rearranged into products with different chemical energies.
* In exothermic reactions, the chemical energy of the products is less than the energy of reactants. The difference in energy between the reactants and products are released into the environment.
* In endothermic reactions = vice versa.
* The energy released and absorbed during a chemical reaction is called the heat of reaction, which is equal to the difference in enthalpy between the products and reactants (given by the symbol ^H.)
* It is the net results of the energy released by breaking bonds and the energy absorbed by making them.
* The equation that states the change in enthalpy in KJ/mol is called a thermochemical equation.
* The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of substance by 1oC is the Specific Heat Capacity of the substance.
* The energy (J) = SHE x Mass(s) x ^ T.
* The higher the Specific Heat Capacity, the more effectively a material will store energy.
* To measure enthalpy changes during a reaction an instrument called a Calorimeter is used.
* During a reaction, the heat change causes a rise or fall in the temperature of the contents of the calorimeter.
* The amount of energy required to change the Temperature within a Calorimeter by 1oC is called the Calibration Factor.
* Electric heater to release a known quantity of thermal energy and measuring the rise in Temperature.
* The thermal energy released when the electric current passes through the heater can be calculated from the formula: E = VIt. Cf = E/^T.
* The Cf is then used to determine what energy change is...