(A) Explain Aquinas' version of the teleological argument
Design arguments for God's existence are often known as teleological arguments. They are often referred to as teleological because 'telos' comes from the Greek word for the end or result of some course of action. The teleological arguments are a posteriori, they are a posteriori because they are not based on empirical evidence but from our own experiences of the world. Also design arguments are described as being not sophisticated, this is because they appeal to our sense of wonder we get from observing the beauty of our natural world.
The design arguments follow a set pattern like this; whenever we see things made by people that look good or complex, we can say that they must have been made by an intelligent designer, the natural word is full of complexity and aesthetic appeal with resemblance to human intervention, therefore the universe must have an intelligent designer, God.
Thomas Aquinas was a famous Italian priest from the twelve hundreds, and he had his own version of the design argument. Aquinas' design argument was described in the five ways, in which his arguments of the cosmological argument were described. In Aquinas' final way he speaks of the observable universe and the order of nature. Aquinas states that common sense tells us that the universe works in such a way, that one can conclude that is was designed by an intelligent designer, God. In other words, all physical laws and the order of nature and life were designed and ordered by an intelligent designer.
The argument links in with Aristotle's cosmological argument. Thomas Aquinas is saying that while human beings do exist and think for themselves, the reason why humans exist is due to an uncaused cause which made the natural laws needed for our existence.
To sum it up into easier terms, Aquinas basically said that when you look at the natural world you can see that everything in it follows natural laws, even if the things...