Colonization (or colonisation) occurs whenever any one or more species populate an area. The term, which is derived from the Latin colere, "to inhabit, cultivate, frequent practice, tend, guard, respect", originally referred to humans. During the 19th century, biogeographers appropriated the term to also describe the activities of birds, bacteria, or plant species. Human colonization is a narrower category than the related concept of colonialism. Colonization refers strictly to migration, for example, to settler colonies, trading posts, and plantations, while colonialism deals with this, along with ruling the existing indigenous peoples of styled "new territories".
1 Historical colonizations
1.2 Classical period
1.3 Middle Ages
1.4 Modern "Colonial era" colonialism
1.5 Colonization of Europe
2 Modern colonization
3 Other ways of using the term
3.2 Habitat - botany and zoology
4 Hypothetical or fictional types of colonization
4.1 Ocean colonization
4.2 Space colonization
5 See also
6 Notes and references
8 See also
Historical colonizations[edit source | editbeta]
Prehistory[edit source | editbeta]
[icon] This section requires expansion. (December 2012)
An example of colonization includes the migration of Austronesian peoples across the islands and land in the Pacific Ocean. Another is the Bantu expansion.
Classical period[edit source | editbeta]
In ancient times, maritime nations such as the city-states of Greece and Phoenicia often established colonies to farm what they saw as uninhabited land. In classical times, land suitable for farming was often claimed by migratory "barbarian tribes" who lived by hunting and gathering. To ancient Greeks and Phoenicians, the land was regarded as simply vacant. However this does not mean that conflict did not exist between the colonizers and native peoples. Greeks and Phoenicians also established colonies...