Affirmative action(AA) refers to policies that intended to promote the opportunities of defined minority groups within a society. Affirmative action is another word for positive discrimination in the United Kingdom, further known in Canada as employment equity. All AA policies have different goals requiring that require different treatment for each situation. Typically AA policies are initiated through areas of business, education, and employment. AA was expanded to include gender after his success at mitigating racial discrimination in the workplace. Historically implemendted to reduce discriminatios towards minority groups, AA has caused reverse discrimination towards the majority groups because non job related criteria is morally acceptable to be used in evaluating who to hire. Teleology and utilitarianism are the primary theories involving AA as well as feminist ethics exploring how gender equality can have a large impact on what is considered to be morally correct, when emotions and sensitivity to others are taken into account.
goals of AA
First of which is passive nondiscrimination. Under this condition, "all company hiring and promotion decision are made without regard to race, sex, age, color, religion, national origin, or handicap" (Post et al., p. 412). The second form is affirmative action, in which "company efforts to ensure employment opportunities are highly visible and firms seek minorities, women, and other excluded groups for employment" (Post et al., p. 412). A third strategy is preferential hiring, in which the "company gives preference to minorities, women, and other excluded groups in hiring and promotion decisions" (Post et al., p. 412). Finally, a remedy for past discrimination relies upon employment quotas, involving "establish[ing] specific numbers or proportions as goals for minorities, women, and other excluded groups to be hired or promoted" (p. 412).
affirmative action policies required that active...